Sustainability environmental lack is a growing and pivotal mater due to the issues: such as disturbances associated with biodiversity pollution, and climate change. Pollutants are the major cause of these environmental threats in the atmosphere. In recently, the nano-based photocatalyst is at the forefront of the author's interest because of its promising potential as a green chemical-based compound, high catalytic activity, the suitable and controllable surface area for wastewater treatment. Semiconductor materials in nanosized scale have electronic and optical properties depend on its building block size, which plays a vital role in developing smart materials that are well efficient for simultaneously destroying harmful chemical contaminants from our environment. This makes these materials used in many possible industrial applications such as water purification. In this Review, we report the most significant results contributing to progress in the area of environmental hazardous pollutant detection and removal focused on water purification especially through photo-catalysis to give readers an overview of the present research trends. Moreover, we analyze previous studies to indicate key principles of photo-catalysis and provide guidelines that can be used to fabricate more efficient photocatalysts.