Alfalfa, like other legumes, establishes a symbiotic relationship with the soil bacteria, Sinorhizobium meliloti, which results in the formation of the root nodules. Nodules contain the bacteria enclosed in a membrane-bound vesicle, the symbiosome where it fixes atmospheric N2 and converts it into ammonia using the bacterial enzyme, nitrogenase. The ammonia released into the cytoplasm from the symbiosome is assimilated into glutamine (Gln) using carbon skeletons produced by the metabolism of sucrose (Suc), which is imported into the nodules from the leaves. The key enzyme involved in the synthesis of Suc in the leaves is sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) is the enzyme with a role in ammonia assimilation in the root nodules. Alfalfa plants, overexpressing SPS or GS, or both showed increased growth and an increase in nodule function. The endogenous genes for the key enzymes in C/N metabolism showed increased expression in the nodules of both sets of transformants. Furthermore, the endogenous SPS and GS genes were also induced in the leaves and nodules of the transformants, irrespective of the transgene, suggesting that the two classes of plants share a common signaling pathway regulating C/N metabolism in the nodules. This study reaffirms the utility of the nodulated legume plant to study C/N interaction and the cross talk between the source and sink for C and N.