Salt forms are aggressive deterioration problems, which occur on all stone surfaces, mortars and renderings through saline solutions transferred to the stone pores. Deterioration of Egyptian limestone is primarily due to water-soluble salts. The formation of these salts on calcareous stone is the most important chemical reaction involving saline water to cause stone degradation. The study explains the different deterioration phenomena and alteration mechanisms that lead to the formation of salt crusts on archaeological limestone surfaces. A simulation laboratory conditions has been created to correspond to the aggressive deterioration environments dominating in most archaeological sites in Egypt. Different scientific instruments such as EDX attached with SEM, XRD, AAS, and ISE have been used to study and evaluate the chemical and mineralogical components of salt crusts and to assess the major ions accumulated within the stone pores. The results show that there are aggressive forms of salt affecting the weathered samples; especially those subjected to Na2SO4 followed by samples exposed to 1:1 NaCl and Na2SO4. The high level of Cl- and SO4-- concentrations found on the decayed stone surfaces gives an accurate evidence of salt migration. The degradation phenomena resulted from salty decay actions has occurred directly through complex mechanisms depending on certain specific factors. These factors such as mineralogical composition of stones, major deterioration factors responsible for the natural variety in stone reactivity and adsorption of some salty ions as Cl- and SO4--. Thereafter production of gypsum, halite and other species of salty crusts, in addition to the dominated environmental conditions.