The present study investigates for the first time the historical bricks of The Red Monastery(west Sohag, Egypt), built about fifth century AD, which showing several aspects of brickdecay. Several techniques were employed (geochemical, petrographical, mineralogical andmorphological) to determine their deterioration features and provenance of the raw materialas well as shed lights on the firing techniques. In addition, integration of geochemical datawith multivariate statistics (i.e. Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analyses and LinearDiscriminant Analyses) were used to provide insights into the nature and provenance of theraw material. Potential geological raw materials for bricks manufacturing, were taken frommodern floodplain (Nile alluvium) and calcareous clay deposits from lowland desert near themonument site, and subjected to chemical analyses, to compare them with the chemicalcomposition of the studied bricks. Results show that the starting raw materials for bricks wereprobably obtained by mixing Nile alluvium (quarried from the Nile River floodplain deposits)with the possible introduction of a calcium carbonate-rich flux component as a temper. Thiswill provide guidelines for future conservation strategy for making new compatible and durablebricks and/or materials to be utilized for restoration, and contributes to the preservation of thehistorical masonry under study.