Most of the limestones in the Eocene Carbonate plateau, west of the Nile Valley (Sohag), are affected repeatedly by karst processes, and different landforms related to limestone dissolution occurred. However, there is no published literature available dealing with the detailed studies  of the karstification process and associated karst landforms in this study area.  Therefore, this study  focuses on paleoerosion surfaces and  evolution of the  landscapes of the Eocene carbonate plateau, and discussing the factors  controlling  the development of karst features, and their evolution, as well as presents  the associated  natural  hazards  and  their  impacts.  By

integrating geomorphological, and sedimentological techniques,, the karstic  carbonate rocks west of Sohag were subjected to three deep weathering cycles that probably started after the Eocene uplift and continued up to Late Miocene. This has led to the continuous lowering of the landscape of the plateau  and the generation of three  paleoerosional surfaces of different altitudes  with distinct karst features developed from the Late Eocene through the Miocene, termed  here as S1 to S3.  Surface S1  considers a part of a planation surface named Western Plateau surface, developed in  the late Eocene  age  during a fall in sea-level, dominated by  calcrete  hardpan,  fluvio-karst features and flutings. S2 occurs at the top of the widely nearby plateau escarpment  that took place during  the Late Oligocene-Miocene  age. This surface is marked by  a widespread  of surface  and subsurface solution  features  and landforms, ranging from cone karsts  and ridges  grades  to karrens, and  is covered by the deeply entrenched valleys, paleodolines  and caves.  Paleodolines. range from solution  type  formed at the early-stage dissolution  to  collapsing-sagging  created by large  solution cavities with associated raveling of the overburden, to stable sediment in-filled, buried paleodolines.  S3  was  formed  during  the lowering base level of the Mediterranean during Messinian  Salinity Crisis in Late Miocene age and was synchronous with the onset of  incision of the  Nile channel.  This surface is  characterized by an undulating relief interrupted by deep downcutting canyons and its infilling during the Plio-Quaternary Nile sediments.

The karstified limestone  in the  investigated  area  was  affected by ground instability  such as  paleodolines  and irregular rockhead,  floods, slope failures and landslides.  It believed that  the low-gradient topography  and subhorizontal bedding, paleoclimate , deformational structure, fluvial processes and  the soluble rock lithology  seem to be the main  controlling factors  the dissolution-induced landforms.  and associated hazards  and  evolution  of  landscape.  Finally,    the understanding of    characteristics and  the occurrences of  the active paleokarst  features  in these karstic areas  is  useful in identifying the  possible geoenvironmental impacts and the  causes of ground subsidence to structures during urban development