Abstract|In this article, an optimized E-shaped patch antenna for
Bluetooth (2.4{2.484 GHz) and UWB (3.1{10.6 GHz) applications with
WLAN (5.15{5.825 GHz) band-notched characteristics is proposed.
The dimensions of the E-shaped antenna structure in addition to the
position of the slotted C-shape in the ground plane are optimized
using recent optimization techniques such as Modi¯ed Particle Swarm
Optimization (MPSO), Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO), and
Central Force Optimization (CFO). The optimization algorithms
were implemented using MATLAB-software and linked to the CST
Microwave Studio to simulate the antenna. Next, the e®ects of
the Laptop structure on the antenna radiation characteristics are
considered. Finally, the antenna structures are simulated by the ¯nite
di®erence time domain method (FDTD) to validate the results. The
measured results exhibit good agreement with the simulation from CST
and the Finite Di®erence Time Domain (FDTD) program written with