Abstract|In this paper, the interaction of a planar inverted-F
antennas array, mounted on a mobile handset, with a human hand-head
phantom is investigated in the 1.9 GHz band. The hybrid approach
involving the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Nelder-Mead
(NM) algorithm is considered to optimize the complex excitations of
the adaptive array elements in a mutual coupling environment for
di®erent beamforming synthesis. Firstly, the e®ect of the human hand-
head on the handset radiation characteristics is studied. Then, the
spatial-peak speci¯c absorption rate (SAR) values of 2- and 4-element
PIFA arrays for mobile handset in the vicinity of a human hand-
head are evaluated numerically for di®erent scenarios. The antenna
is analyzed completely using ¯nite di®erence time domain (FDTD)
method while the interaction is performed using the CST Microwave
Studio software.