eman_shalabi

Eman Muhammad Salah El-Deen Muhammad Shalabi

Professor - Professor of Pathology

Faculty of medicine

Address: القوصية - محافظة أسيوط

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Diseases of the Heart for Postgraduate Students of Pathology, Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Pediatrics and Cardiothoracic Surgery

2018-09-22 21:34:34 |

DISEASES OF THE HEART

DISEASES OF THE ENDOCARDIUM

RHEUMATIC FEVER

Definition

General consideration

Etiology: Age incidence, predisposing factors

Pathogenesis

Acute rheumatic fever

Changes in the heart: Pancarditis; Pericarditis, Myocarditis, Endocarditis

Microscopic picture

Chronic rheumatic heart diseases

Changes in other tissues in RF: Joints, Subcutaneous nodules, Brain, Skin, Pleura and Peritoneum, Blood vessels

Clinical features of acute RF

Causes of death in RF

 

ENDOCARDITIS

Definition

Types

Infective endocarditis (bacterial endocarditis)

Acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE)

Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)

Non-infective endocarditis

Rheumatic endocarditis

Atypical verrucous endocarditis (Libman-Sacks endocarditis)

Non infective thrombotic endocarditis (Terminal endocarditis)

 

Infective endocarditis

Predisposing factors

SUBACUTE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

Etiology

Pathogenesis

Pathological lesions

Complications and effects

Embolic manifestations

Renal lesions

Mycotic aneurysms

Skin lesions

Clinical features and course

Causes of death

End results

Investigations

ACUTE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

Pathogenesis

Pathological features

Spread of infection

Complications: Local and general

Effects and end results

Clinical features and course

Causes of death

 

Other types of endocarditis

Non infective thrombotic endocarditis

Libman-Sacks endocarditis

 

VALVULAR DISEASES

Diseases of mitral valve

Mitral stenosis:  Etiology, Gross picture, Microscopic picture, Effects, Complications, Causes of death

Mitral incompetence: Etiology, Effects, Complications, Causes of death

 

Diseases of aortic valve

Aortic incompetence: Etiology, Effects, Complications, Causes of death

Aortic stenosis: Etiology, Effects, Causes of death

 

Diseases of tricuspid valve

Tricuspid stenosis: Etiology

Tricuspid  incompetence: Etiology, Effects

 

Diseases of pulmonary valve

Pulmonary stenosis: Causes, Effects

Pulmonary incompetence: Etiology, Effects

 

DISEASES OF THE MYOCARDIUM

Blood supply of the heart 

 

ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE

General consideration and causal factors

Angina Pectoris

Variants of angina

Typical Stable Angina

Variant Angina “Prinzmetal’s angina”

Unstable Angina (cresendo angina)

Chronic ischemic heart diseases

Gross and microscopic features

Myocardial Infarction

Types of Myocardial Infarction

Regional MI

Subendocardial MI

Microscopic infarcts

Pathogenesis of MI

Myocardial response to ischemia

Morbid anatomy and Microscopic features

Morphological changes in MI

Size and rate of development of MI

Clinical feature and course

Outcome of myocardial infarction

Complications of MI

Arrhythmias

Cardiac failure

Mural thrombosis

Venous thrombosis

Rupture of infarcted myocardium

Cardiac aneurysm

Angina pectoris

Recurrence of infarction

Post-infarction Dressler’s syndrome

Subendocardial MI

Other effects of IHD

Sudden death

 

CARDIOMYOPATHY

Primary Cardiomyopathy: types and causes

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy

Restrictive (oblitrative) cardiomyopathy

Endomyocardial fibrosis

Endomyocardial fibroelastosis

Secondary Cardiomyopathy

 

MYOCARDITIS

Definition

Types

Viral interstitial myocarditis

Suppurative myocarditis

Toxic myocarditis

Hypersensitivity reactions

Granulomatous myocarditis

 

DISEASES OF THE PERICARDIUM

PERICARDITIS

Morphology

Types and causes of pericarditis

Viral and idiopathic pericarditis

Bacterial pericarditis

Tuberculous pericarditis

Other causes of acute pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis

 

Hydropericardium

Hemopericardium

 

CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES

Etiology

Non-cyanotic group

Left to right shunt

Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

No shunt

Pulmonary stenosis

Aortic stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

 

Cyanotic group: (right to left shunt)

Fallot’s trilogy

Fallot’s tetralogy

Eisenmenger’s syndrome

Transposition of great vessels

 Complications of congenital heart diseases

 

TUMORS OF THE HEART

Primary and secondary

 

HEART FAILUIRE

Definition

ACUTE HEART FAILURE

Causes

Cardiogenic shock

 

CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

Causes of RSHF

Heart diseases

Lung diseases

Causes of LSHF

Increase workload

Myocardial injury

Myocardial injury

Patho-physiological concepts

Forward failure vs backward failure

Systolic failure vs diastolic failure

Systolic failure (inadequate emptying)

Impaired ventricular contraction

Manifestation of cardiac failure

Congestive (biventricular) failure

Increased volume load

Pressure overload

Diastolic failure (inadequate filling)

Pericardial diseases

Stenosis of mitral or tricuspid valve

Atrial arrhythmias

Decreased myocardial compliance

Severe endocardial thickening

 

 

 

 

 

 


Postgraduate Internal Medicine Exams

2018-09-22 21:36:12 Diseases of the Heart for Postgraduate Students of Pathology, Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Pediatrics and Cardiothoracic Surgery
INTERNAL MEDICINE POSTGRADUATE EXAMS ON THE SAME COURSE HEART DISEASES RHEUMATIC FEVER ENDOCARDITIS SUBACUTE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS ACUTE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS OTH Read more