eman_shalabi

Eman Muhammad Salah El-Deen Muhammad Shalabi

Professor - Professor of Pathology

Faculty of medicine

Address: القوصية - محافظة أسيوط

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Diseases of the Endocrine System for Postgraduates of Pathology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and General Surgery

2018-10-13 22:21:32 |

Diseases of the Endocrine System

PITUTARY GLAMD

Normal embryology and anatomy

Normal pituitary cell types

Hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism

Pathogenesis

Posterior pituitary syndromes

Pituitary adenomas

General features

Size, spread, and grading

Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic features

Adenoma types

Gonadotroph cell adenoma

Null cell adenoma

Growth hormone-producing adenoma

Prolactin-secreting adenoma

Corticotroph adenoma

TSH-producing adenoma

Plurihormonal adenoma

Ectopic pituitary adenoma

Ectopic pituitary adenoma

Mixed pituitary adenoma–gangliocytoma

Pituitary carcinoma

Rathke cleft cyst

Lymphocytic hypophysitis

Craniopharyngioma

Metastatic tumors

THYROID GLAND

Physiology

Histology

Normal thyroid tissue

Congenital abnormalities

Thyroglossal duct anomalies

Branchial pouch anomalies

Hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism

Causes and pathogenesis

Cretinism

Myxedema

Thyroiditis

Classification

Acute thyroiditis

Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (Giant cell thyroiditis; DeQuervain's disease)

Etiology

Gross Pathology

Microscopic Pathology

Palpation thyroiditis

Tuberculosis

Sarcoidosis

Mycoses

Postoperative necrotizing granulomas

Autoimmune (lymphocytic and Hashimoto) thyroiditis

Definition

Etiology

Incidence

Gross picture

Microscopic picture

Effects

(Painless) silent thyroiditis

Riedel's thyroiditis

Clinically

Gross picture

Microscopic picture

Effects and Complications

Multifocal sclerosing thyroiditis

Hyperplasia

Major types of thyroid hyperplastic disorders

Dyshormonogenetic goiter

Graves’ disease; (diffuse toxic goiter)

Nodular hyperplasia

Endemic goiter

Sporadic goiter

Goiter

Definition

Types of goiter

Simple goiter

Definition

Thyroid enlargement with no thyroid hyperfunction

Causes

Pathogenesis

Types of simple goiter

Complications of simple goiter

Diffuse parenchymatous goiter

Pathogenesis

Grossly

Microscopically

Diffuse colloid goiter

Pathogenesis

Grossly

Microscopically

Multinodular goiter (colloid nodular goiter)

Pathogenesis

Grossly

Microscopically

Toxic goiter

Definition

Types

Other names: exospheric goiter / diffuse toxic goiter

Etiology

Incidence

Gross features

Microscopic features

Clinical features and complication

Thyroid tumors

Types

Epithelial tumors – specific types

Follicular thyroid adenoma

Thyroid carcinoma

Follicular thyroid adenoma

Definition

Genetic pathology of thyroid tumors of follicular cells

Grossly

Microscopic picture

Complications

Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma and related lesions

Thyroid carcinoma

Definition

Incidence

Geographic distribution

Predisposing factors

Microscopic types

Thyroid neoplasia in childhood

Papillary carcinoma

Grossly

Microscopic features

Electron microscopic features

Histochemical and immunohistochemical features

Molecular genetic features

Variants of papillary carcinoma

Spread and metastasis

Prognosis of papillary carcinoma

Follicular carcinoma

Generalities and molecular genetic features

Follicular carcinoma subtypes

Hürthle cell (oncocytic) tumors

Clinicopathologic features

Clear cell tumors

Squamous cell, mucinous, and related tumors

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Poorly differentiated carcinoma

Undifferentiated carcinoma; anaplastic carcinoma

Medullary Carcinoma and related neuroendocrine lesions

Morphologic features

Cytologic features

Electron microscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical features

Hereditary medullary carcinoma and C-cell hyperplasia

Spread and metastasis

Prognosis of medullary carcinoma

Other neuroendocrine tumors

Medullary (C-cell) adenoma

Mixed medullary–follicular carcinoma

Mixed medullary–papillary carcinoma

Paraganglioma

Small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma

Epithelial tumors – general features

Thyroid neoplasia and radiation exposure

Familial incidence and association with other conditions

Evaluation of the solitary thyroid nodule

Core needle biopsy and fine needle aspiration

Frozen section

Presence of thyroid tissue outside gland

Lymphoid tumors and tumor-like conditions

Primary malignant lymphoma

Plasmacytoma

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Mesenchymal tumors

Benign mesenchymal tumors

Sarcomas

Other primary tumors and tumor-like conditions

Teratomas

Neuroblastomas

Amyloidosis

Malakoplakia and Wegener granulomatosis

Thymic and branchial pouch-derived tumors

Metastatic tumors 

PARATHYROID GLAND

Normal gross anatomy and embryology

Normal histology

Normal physiology

Parathyroid Adenoma

Gross features

Microscopic features

Electron microscopic features

Histochemical and immunohistochemical features

Molecular genetic features

Variants of parathyroid adenoma

Chief cell hyperplasia

Water-clear cell hyperplasia

Parathyroid Carcinoma

Prognosis

Hyperparathyroidism

Primary

Other names: Osteitis fibrosa cystica OR Von Reckling housen`s disease

Etiology

Pathology

Effects

Secondary

Tertiary

Differential diagnosis

Hypoparathroidism

Clinical features and effects

ADRENAL GLAND

Normal anatomy

Heterotopia

Zones of the adrenal cortex

Biopsy and cytology

Lesions of adrenal cortex

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Acquired hyperplasia

Adrenocortical tumors

Adenoma 

Carcinoma

Clinical features

Morphological features

Electron microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical

Molecular genetic features

Effects

Functional manifestations

Aldosteronism

Adrenal cortex hyper-function

Etiology

Cushing syndrome

Adrenogenital syndrome

Adrenal cortex hypo-function

Acute adrenal insufficiency

Etiology

Effect

Chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)

Tumors of adrenal gland

Tumors of adrenal cortex

Epithelial

Adenoma

Mesenchymal: Fibroma, neurofibroma, lipoma and haemangioma

Adrenocortical carcinoma

Lesions of adrenal medulla

Tumors of adrenal medulla

Neuroblastoma

Clinical features

Morphological features

Electron microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical

Molecular genetic features

Effects

In situ, regressing, and maturing neuroblastoma

Spread and metastases

Prognosis

Ganglioneuroblastoma

Ganglioneuroma

Adrenal medullary hyperplasia

Pheochromocytoma

Clinical features

Morphological features

Electron microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical

Molecular genetic features

Effects

Spread and metastases

Prognosis

Specific paraganglioma types

Metastatic tumor

ENDOCRINE PANCREAS

Diabetes mellitus

Definition

Types

Primary or Idiopathic

Type I or IDDM (Insulin dependent DM)

Type II or NIDDM (Non-insulin-dependent MD)

Etiology

Pathological features

Gross Picture

Microscopically

Complications

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy

Cardiovascular complications (diabetic microangiopathy or vasculopathy)

Diabetic retinopathy

Respiratory system complications

Peripheral neuritis (diabetic neuropathy):

Skin complications

Insulinoma

Gastrinoma

 


Time table for the Course of Endocrine System for Postgraduates
EIGHT HOURS LECTURES DIVIDED INTO (2) HOURS EACH FOUR SESSION OF PRACTICAL SLIDE EXAMINATION AND GROUP DISCUSSION (2) HOURS EACH... Read more

Exams in the Course of Diseases of the E

2018-10-13 22:46:29 Diseases of the Endocrine System for Postgraduates of Pathology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and General Surgery
Some exams containing questions on the course of endocrinal diseases are attached here Read more