X-Ray Analytical Methods

X-rays were discovered by W.C. Röentgen in 1895, and led to three major uses:
X-ray radiography is used for creating images of light-opaque materials. It relies on the relationship between density of materials and absorption of x-rays. Applications include a variety of medical and industrial applications.
X-ray crystallography relies on the dual wave/particle nature of x-rays to discover information about the structure of crystalline materials.
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry relies on characteristic secondary radiation emitted by materials when excited by a high-energy x-ray source and is used primarily to determine amounts of particular elements in materials.