Q1- a) Explain the cleaning action of soap and detergent.

b) Illustrate by equations the synthesis of "Aniline" with mechanism, and use it to prepare the following:

i) p,p-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI).

ii) Sulfadiazine.

Q2-a) Explain by equations the synthesis of "DDT" starting from ethanol.

b) "Sodium tripolyphosphate was the first important commercial builder in soaps and detergents". In the light of this sentence answer the following:

i) Define the "builder".

ii) Write the structure of "sodium tripolyphosphate".

iii) What was the problem of phosphates as builders?

iv) Write the structure of four phosphate substitutes.