The present work deals with meandering and bank erosion of the River Nile of Egypt and its environmental impact between Sohag and El-Minia, Egypt. The study depends on using Landsat imagery acquired on 1987–2000 and field observations. Field observations, remote sensing, and GIS analysis and sinuosity index were used in this study to investigate river meandering and the associated processes of erosion of river bank and islands, deposition of sediments and formation of new islands. The analysis of Landsat imagery revealed the migration of river course with time and space. Some islands disappear completely in the study area whereas new islands appear in other places. The lateral erosion on the river banks led to a decrease in agricultural lands bordering the river banks and decrease in the areas of the river islands which in turn reduces the agricultural production. Depositional processes create new floodplains on the convex sides of the river course and new islands and sand bars. Protection methods are recommended to protect the river bank from further movement and erosion. The present conditions of river meandering and the associated processes of erosion and deposition accelerated with human activities have its impact on the environment. The most prominent hazard problem is reduction of agricultural lands and loss of property as well as navigation problems. River control is recommended to weaken the secondary currents created by the river bends. It is recommended to regularly monitor the river banks and islands and measure the rates of erosion and deposition. Sand bars and subsurface islands should be monitored and identified with flash lights to mitigate navigation problems.