Male patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n ¼ 57) demonstrated a statistically significant
decrease in semen volume, sperm count, and progressive sperm motility and a statistically significant increase
in abnormal sperm morphology compared with healthy controls (n
¼ 40). The duration of the HCV infection
was negatively correlated with semen volume and sperm motility where the HCV RNA viral load was negatively
correlated with sperm count and sperm motility. Chronic HCV patients had statistically significantly lower total
serum testosterone and higher serum E
2 and prolactin levels compared with healthy controls. (Fertil Steril
2011;95:2557–9. 2011 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)