Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci., 1 (1): 29-36 (2010) D. Histology & Histochemistry
Email: ISSN: 2090 – 0775
Received: 21/6/2010
The first international Conference of Biological Sciences
27-29-Sep. 2010 Cairo – Egypt
Morphological evidence for possible sites of Production of the female sex
pheromone of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Nasra M. H. Zohry
Department of Zoology Faculty of Science Sohag University, Egypt.
The morphology of the female sex pheromone gland of S. littoralis was
studied using scanning electron and light microscopy. This gland is situated ventrally
in the intersegmental membrane just in front of the last abdominal segments , the
cuticula of the intersegmental membrane between eighth and ninth segments is
thickened and slightly raised, bears furrows the rim of which just in front of the ninth
is covered with cuticular hairs. The second structure involved in pheromone
production is a gland lies in the body cavity situated beneath the eighth and seventh
abdominal tergites, as an invagination of the ventral intersegmental membrane
between eighth and ninth segments. This gland leads to a duct with an eversible sac.
Examination of the tissue with scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of
excreted droplets at the tips of cuticular hairs in the glandular area during the period
of pheromone production.
Keywords: Female sex pheromone, Lepidoptera, Spodoptera littoralis, Morphology, Scanning electron
microscopy, Ultrastructure.
Females of most moths produce
species-specific sex pheromones in
specialized glands, generally located on
the terminal abdominal segments that
constitute the ovipositor. Steinbrecht
(1982) studied the location of female
pheromone gland in the African
armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta.
Precy-Cunningham and Macdonald
(1987) identified the Pheromone glands
of female moths representing 16 families
and studied their structural
characteristics. The majority of the
species examined belong to the family
Noctuidae. Among the Heliothinae,
morphology and histology of the
pheromone glands were studied in
Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea
(Jefferson et al., 1968; Aubrey et al.,
1983; Teal et al., 1983; Precy-
Cunningham and MacDonald, 1987).
Percy-Cunningham and MacDonald
(1987) reported on the ultrastructural
features of the gland in H. zea. A more
complete ultrastructural study of the
pheromone glands was concluded in
Choristoneura fumiferana (Percy, 1974)
and Trichoplusia ni (Percy, 1979). In the
latter case, the author also attempt to
correlate ultrastructural changes to
production and release of pheromone.
Also, Raina et al. (2000) studied the
morphological location of the sex
pheromone producing area in the
ovipositor of female corn earworm H.
zea and correlated with gas
chromatographic analysis of the extracted
pheromone. Morphological and
histological studies in the production of
sex pheromone of Copitarsia consueta
(Rojas et al., 1995).
The sex pheromone gland of
calling female Sapodilla fruit borer
(SFB), has been studied histologically
(Suwanjarat and Witethom, 1995). Ma
and Roelofs (2002) studied the sex
pheromone gland of the female European
corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis using
light and electron microscopy.