Background: idiopathic male infertility is a cause for increased concern of health caregivers. Semen quality abnormalities are not well
understood; environmental factors such as aflatoxins may play a role. Aim: the study conducted to determine the effect of Aflatoxins on
male production. Methods and subjects: semen samples from 108 adult men were examined for aflatoxins. Of whom, 60 males with
infertility and 48 fertile males served as controls. Semen was screened for the presence of aflatoxin using solvent extraction by high performance
liquid chromatography. Seminal parameters were determined according to the WHO criteria for semen parameters. Statistical
analyses were done using t-test and x2 test. Results: The prevalence of aflatoxins in the infertile males was 25% (15) compared to 2.1% (1)
in the fertile males (P=0.0007). The majority of infertile men with aflatoxins had a high level of toxicity compared to fertile group (53.3%
vs. 0%, P=0.0202, respectively), while low and medium toxicity were similar in infertile and the fertile group, (20% vs. 2.1%, P=0.6274), and
(26.7% vs.0%, P=0.1502), respectively. Semen parameters of infertile men were significantly reduced compared to fertile group in volume
(2.08 ± 0.84vs. 2.52 ± 0.53,P=0.0021), sperm count(86.4 ± 77.39 vs. 185.37 ± 137.82,P<0.0001), sperm morphology(34.83 ± 12.51 vs. 63.53
± 6.46,P<0.0001), sperm motility(23.17 ± 11.7 vs. 53.33 ± 7.23, P<0.0001), and viscosity (0.7±.1vs. 1.1±0.01, P=0.0001). Conclusion: high
percentage of aflatoxins was demonstrated among infertile males with significant reduction of al semen parameters raising greater concern
about the relation between idiopathic infertility in male and aflatoxins.