Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is a major cause of neurological disabilities in preterm babies. This study
aimed to determine the prevalence, perinatal risk factors, and outcomes associated with GM-IVH in preterm babies. We conducted a
prospective case-control study on preterm infants born at ≤37 weeks of gestation and admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Units of
the Pediatrics Department, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt between January 1 2014 and December 31 2014. Of
550 eligible subjects, the prevalence of GM-IVH preterm babies was 74(13.5%). Of these, 15(20.2%) babies had died, 16 (21.6%) cases
had post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and 11 (14.9%) had periventricular leukomalacia. The risk of GM-IVH was significantly higher
in preterm babies with a lower gestational age (P<0.0001) and birth weight (P<0.0001), delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD)
(P=0.027), in the presence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (P=0.02), needed mechanical ventilation (MV) (P<0.0001),
received surfactant therapy (0.002), had sepsis (P=0.002), had hypotension (P<0.0001), or had significant patent ductus arteriosus
(PDA) (P=0.001). However, antenatal steroid therapy (P=0.001), delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) (P<0.0001), a higher
hemoglobin level (P=0.001), and caffeine citrate therapy (P=0.004) seemed to be protective against GM-IVH. The prevalence of GMIVH
preterm babies was 74(13.5%); of them, 15(20.2%) babies died. Prematurity and its sequelae such as RDS, sepsis, MV,
surfactant therapy, and PDA are associated with a higher incidence of GM-IVH. Antenatal steroid therapy, DCC, a higher
hemoglobin level, and caffeine citrate therapy seem to be protective in reducing the occurrence of GM-IVH.