Background. Frequent blood transfusions in thalassemia major children expose them to the risk of transfusion-transmitted
infections (TTIs). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in thalassemic children attending the PediatricsDepartments of both
Sohag andMiniaUniversities ofUpper Egypt, during the period fromMay 2014 toMay 2015. Methods. Serumsampleswere screened
for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-CMV, and anti-HIV type 1 and type 2 using the Vitek Immunodiagnostic
Assay System. Results.The frequencies of anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-CMV, and anti-HIV type 1 and type 2 were found to be 37.11%,
4.12%, 4.12%, 0.00%, and 0.00%, respectively. Seropositivity for anti-HCV, HBsAg, and anti-CMV increased with increasing age of
the patients, duration of the disease, serum ferritin level (ng/mL), and liver enzymes (U/L), while it was not significantly associated
with gender, frequency of blood transfusion, or the status of splenectomy operation (𝑃 > 0.05). Conclusion.The frequency of TTIs,
especially HCV, is considerably high among Egyptian children with thalassemia major. It is therefore important to implement
measures to improve blood transfusion screening, such as polymerase chain reaction, in order to reduce TTIs from blood donor