Background: The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties and may have a role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis.

Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to compare serum levels of TGF-β1 in a group of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients as well as healthy individuals and to determine the correlation between the TGF-β1 and stages of fibrosis in CHB patients.

Patients and Methods: This case-control study included 40 patients with CHB and 40 healthy individuals as the control group. ELISA technique was applied to measure serum levels of TGF-β1 in both patients and control groups and we used the data of liver biopsy of CHB patients to make a correlation between TGF-β1 and stages of fibrosis.

Results: Our results revealed that the serum levels of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in CHB patients (1958 ± 730.26 pg/ml) in comparison with healthy controls (944.4±573.24 pg/ml) (p<0.0001). Serum levels of TGF-β1 was significantly increased in F2-F3 stages of fibrosis (2600.0±472.69 pg/ml) in comparison with F0-F1 stages (1483.5±478.54 pg/ml) (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: High serum levels of TGF-β1 may be a mechanism by which immune response against HBV is suppressed. The serum level of TGF-β1 is a potential noninvasive marker for diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHB patients.