Vitamin D through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in the control of bone and calcium homeostasis, immunoregulation, cellular differentiation, and anti-inflammatory actions. The liver is central in vitamin D synthesis, however the direct involvement of the vitamin D with chronic liver disease, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be evaluated. The purpose of this review is to describe vitamin D metabolism, the mechanisms of homeostatic control, and to address the associations between vitamin D and HCV-related liver disease.