Steatotic liver grafts represent the most common type of ‘‘extended criteria’’ organs that have been introduced during the last two decades due to the disparity between liver transplant candidates and the number available organs. A precise definition and reliable and reproducible method for steatosis quantification is currently lacking and the potential influence of the chemical composition of hepatic lipids has not been addressed. In our view, these shortcomings appear to contribute significantly to the inconsistent results of studies reporting on graft steatosis and the outcome of liver transplantation. In this review, various def- initions, prevalence and methods of quantification of liver steato- sis will be covered. Ischemia/reperfusion injury of the steatotic liver and its consequences on post-transplant outcome will be discussed. Selection criteria for organ allocation and a number of emerging protective strategies are suggested.