Background and Aim: VCAM-1 (CD106) expressed mainly on activated endothelial cells in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent evidences suggest that it is closely correlated with tumor formation, angiogenesis and cancer progression. The aim of the current study was to evaluate expression status of VCAM-1 in mammary invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and to correlate its expression with some known clinicopathological data.
Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 58 specimens of IDC were evaluated for VCAM-1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Correlation of VCAM-1 expression with different clinicopathological data was measured statistically.
Results: Up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression was frequently observed in less differentiated tumors and within advanced stages with poor Nottingham prognostic index (NPI). VCAM-1 overexpression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and prominent lymphocytic infiltration. There was no significant association of VCAM-1 expression with patients' age, tumor laterality, tumor size, muscle or skin invasion, and presence of in situ component.
Conclusion: VCAM-1 molecule could promote LVI and LNM. VCAM-1 is a potential independent prognostic factor for breast carcinoma.
Abbreviations: CD: Cluster of differentiation, IDC: Invasive ductal carcinoma, IDC-NST: Invasive ductal carcinoma of no specific type, IHC: Immunohistochemistry, LNM: lymph node metastasis, LVI: lymphovascular invasion, NPI: Nottingham prognostic index, VCAM-1: Vascular cell adhesion molecule