This paper is the first part of a study about a birth house located in Edfu temple. It studies the deterioration phenomena that has affected the stone surfaces, and the ideal methods and materials, which have been used for conserving and restoring stone surfaces. In this article, three of the main deterioration factors which have affected the monument under study are identified. Furthermore, field observations are conducted to achieve a weathering graphical profile and deterioration patterns. In addition, different investigating techniques are used for studying aggressive influences affecting the stone surfaces to evaluate their weathering state and defining their different chemical characteristics and physio-mechanical properties. These techniques are EDS, SEM, and XRD, in addition to different scientific computer programs. Our findings have proved that the main factors of deterioration affecting the monument are mainly three factors. They are alternative effects of air temperature and relative humidity, Man made damages and bird effects. The study shows that the main elemental composition consists of Al, K, Ca, Na, S, Cl and Mg; these elements are present in different structures such as Quartz, Mica, Plagioclase and Calcite as main minerals. Hematite and Goethite as cement materials. Finally Halite, Sylvite, Niter, Nitrate and Kaolinite as a salt and weathering products. Moreover, SEM morphological investigations have proved that the grains of the investigated samples are characterized by the presence of severe abrasive in Qz grains, and the spreading of soiling particles and salt layers. In addition, etching of the cement materials because of hydrolysis process. Moreover, the presence of weakness and brittleness of stone core and some pits on the stone surface are observed.