Groundwater resources of Sohag, Egypt arecurrently threatened by contamination from agriculturaland urbanization activities. Groundwater in Sohag area hasa special significance where it is the second source for freshwater used for agricultural, domestic, and industrialpurposes. Due to growing population, agriculture expansion,and urbanization, groundwater quality assessmentneeds more attention to cope with the increasing waterdemand in this arid zones and limited water resources. Theaim of this paper is to address the integrated role ofgeochemical processes, agriculture and urbanization inevolution of groundwater composition, and their impacton groundwater quality to help in management andprotection of groundwater resources of study area usinggeochemical modeling techniques and geographical informationsystems. Spatial variation of groundwater hydrochemicalproperties, rock–water interaction, ion exchange,and assessment of groundwater quality were investigated.Results indicated that groundwater properties are variedspatially and its evolution in the study area is generallycontrolled by the prevailed geochemical processes representedby leaching, dissolution, and precipitation of saltsand minerals, ion exchange, in addition to human activitiesrepresented by agriculture and urbanization as well asclimatic and poor drainage conditions. Management alternativesshould be followed in the study area to avoiddegradation of groundwater quality and provide sustainable development.