Approximately 60 - 85% of HCV infections cannot eradicate the virus and progress to chronic hepatitis, this may be explained by failure in host immune responses or by the ability of HCV to defeat host defense mechanisms. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may play an immunomodulatory role. This work intended to evaluate the relationship of MBL concentration to chronic HCV infection. Two groups, a patient group (n=50) with chronic hepatitis C, and a control group, (n=35) apparently healthy non-infected subjects were studied. MBL was measured by ELISA in both patients and controls. MBL was higher in chronic HCV patients (1159.86 ± 710.29) than in controls (329.7 ± 68.0) (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation with the level of vireamia, and a positive correlation with the alpha-fetoprotein level. We conclude that MBL may play a role in modulating host immunity, persistence of HCV infection and the disease progression.