Background: Trauma in children is the most frequent injury seen in the Emergency Department leading to morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial fractures occur in a significant proportion worldwide and the incidence of maxillofacial pediatric trauma is less compared to adults. However, they may lead to serious complications.  The aim of this study is to study the incidence and pattern of pediatric maxillofacial trauma in Upper Egypt and to determine the management of this trauma as regard as bone and soft tissue injuries.

Methods: This study was a prospective study which was conducted at Maxillofacial / Head and Neck Surgery Unit of General Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospitals. The study includes patients with maxillofacial trauma less than 16 years during the period from April 2017 to April 2018. Medical records of 63 pediatric patients were reviewed during this period. Relevant data in relation to demographics, age, sex, etiology/mechanism of injury, pattern and distribution of injuries and associated injuries were collected associated with discussing the treatment protocols. All the patients were treated by conservative approaches, except those in whom surgical interventions were mandatory according to the guidlines.

Results: Patient age ranged from 2 to 16 years with a range (median) 7 years. The mean age is 8.21 years with standard deviation ±4.15 years at time of presentation in emergency. The male: female ratio was 3.5: 1. The Group C (6 to <12 years group) was the most common group to be injured by 25 patients (39.68%) and the group A (1 to <3 years group) was the least group to be injured by 2 patients (3.17%).  The most common cause of maxillofacial injuries was falling from highet (FFH) with 37 (58.73%) patients, followed by motor car accident (MCA) affecting 20 (31.75%) patients. Mandibular fractures were found to be highest incidence with (49.38%) followed by Midface fractures with (24.69%). The soft tissue injuries were associated the pediatric maxillofacial trauma were found to be 22.22% of all cases. All the fractures were healed successfully.

Conclusions: The FFH were the main cause. Males and parasymhesial fractures have the highest predominance. The treatment choice of pediatric fractures (conservatively or surgically) is chosen according to guidelines. Pediatric fractures must be followed longitudinally to avoid post-traumatic complications.