Batch experiments using two types of aquatic plants named Echinochloa
pyramidalis, Ludwigia stolonifera planted in association and individually.
Reference experiments without aquatic plants were carried out. All experiments
were for 10 days retention time for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and
lead (Pb) from secondary treated wastewater. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH
values, total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrite – nitrogen (NO
– N), nitrate –
– N), orthophosphate (PO
– P), and total phosphorus (TP) were
measured at the beginning and end of experiments to assess the effect of E.
pyramidalis and L. stolonifera plants in treating wastewater. It is concluded that
both E. pyramidalis and L. stolonifera have high capabilities to remove heavy
metals and nutrients (N and P) directly from treated wastewater. It is concluded
also that the maximum removal efficiency of heavy metal was at a plant density of
100%, while the minimum was at a plant density of 20%