Abstract

Aim: Assessment of insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio (ICR) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted over a 2-year period at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. Children and adolescents aged 4 to 17 years, diagnosed with T1DM for at least 1 year, with fasting serum C-peptide levels <0.24 ng/dL and whose parents accepted to shift their management to flexible MDI using carbohydrate counting, were included. Participants were initially hospitalized for estimation of ICR and insulin doses, then followed-up monthly for further adjustments. Insulin doses, ICR, and glycemic control parameters were assessed after 3 months.

Results: The study included 201 participants, 110 (54.7%) of them were males. The median age was 9.5 years (interquartile range: 7-12.5 years). Bolus insulin requirements estimated by the 500 rule were significantly lower than the actual doses used by the study participants for all meals (P < .001). Bolus insulin requirement for morning meal was significantly higher compared to other meals (P < .001). Linear regression analyses between ICR for different meals and the reciprocal of total daily dose (TDD) in 96 participants with optimum glycemic control revealed that ICR could be calculated as 301 to 309/TDD for morning meal (R2 = 0.97, P < .001), 317 to 331/TDD for afternoon meal (R2 = 0.96, P < .001), and 362 to 376/TDD for evening meal (R2 = 0.98, P < .001).

Conclusions: Bolus insulin requirements showed diurnal variation. Using 301 to 309/TDD, 317 to 331/TDD, and 362 to 376/TDD formulas would be more appropriate than the 500 rule for initial estimation of ICR for morning, afternoon, and evening meals, respectively.