The current work focused on studying the optical and structural properties of (CdS)1-x (ZnS)x thin films fabricated by thermal vacuum evaporation approach. The evaporation was implemented at room temperature from bulk samples synthesis by sintering approach. The energy gap, index of refraction, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient were estimated from the experiment and employed in our theoretical model to estimate quantitatively the solar cell efficiency and short-circuit current density of CdS:ZnS/CdTe structure. The calculations of cell efficiency as well as short-circuit current density were computed on the bases of the optical losses caused by reflection at interfaces and absorption process occurred in the frontal charge-collecting and window layers and the recombination losses at front and back surface of CdTe. The XRD analysis showed that the intensity and position of predominant peak of CdS gradually changes with increasing the ZnS content indicating a success of forming CdS:ZnS alloy. The films exhibited direct band-to-band transitions and the optical energy gap increased from 2.40 eV to 3.10 eV with increasing of ZnS content up to x = 0.50. The short-circuit current density increased from 16.50 mA/cm2 to 21 mA/cm2 and the cell efficiency increased from 13.10% to 17.10% due to the increase of the ZnS content from x = 0 to x = 0.50.