Vitiligo is an acquired autoimmune depigmentation of the skin, affecting 2%of the population with  great  impact on quality  of life, which is more  devastating in people with  skin of color. The  most  important selection criterion in  vitiligo  for considering melanocyte keratinocyte transplantation procedure (MKTP) is stability.  However, there  is no consensus regarding the required period to define  clinical stability.  Moreover, despite being  performed on clinically stable  lesions, transplantation is more  successful in segmental vitiligo (SV), compared to non segmental (NSV) patients in  terms  of  repigmentation and  durability of  the  response. To investigate this observation, we performed suction blister biopsies on clinically stable  vitiligo patients undergoing MKTP divided in 2 groups:  SV (n¼7),  and  NSV (n¼7) and  a pibaldism patient as a control. Lesions undergoing surgery were sampled, as well as non lesional skin for comparison. The  immune infiltrate  was  phenotyped by  flow  cytometry, and  levels  of  in- flammatory cytokines in skin and serum  was measured by ELISA. The number of lesional CD8 T cells  and  their  ratio  to CD4  were  significantly higher  in the  lesions  of NSV group  when compared to  nonlesional skin,  while  no  increase was  present in  the  SV group.  Subtyping analysis  of T cells revealed higher  resident memory CD8 T cells in lesional skin of NSV group and  higher  FoxP3+CD4+ T cells in their non  lesional skin. Cytokine  levels were  low in both groups.  These findings suggest  that the improved surgical  responses reported in SV over NSV are due  to subclinical instability in the NSV lesions, reflected by an elevated T cell infiltrate. Sampling the lesions of vitiligo patients who are surgical  candidates may improve selection of patients for this procedure, and  preoperative treatment of lesions  with  immunosuppressives may  improve the  outcomes.