While hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) Infections are important causes of liver disease in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients on haemodialysis (HD), prevalence of HBV in those patients has decreased significantly during the past few decades. The immunosuppressive nature of renal disease often leads to chronicity of the HBV infection and an opportunity for nosocomial spread of the infection among dialysis patients. Egypt is among the countries with intermediate endemicity of HBV infection (range, 2%–7%). Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined by the presence of HBV DNA in serum or liver in the absence of HBsAg. Objectives: to study the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HCV-positive and HCV negative patients on regular hemodialysis from Egypt. Methodology: One Hundred hemodialysis patients with negative HBsAg were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups: HCV positive and HCV negative, based on the results of anti-HCV by ELISA and HCV-RNA by PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the real-time PCR method in both groups. Results: HBV DNA was detected in 7 of the 100 patients (7%) and HBcAb was detected in 22 patients (22%). There were no statistically significant differences in the age, sex, duration of hemodialysis, biochemical parameters, HBcAb, or HBV DNA between patients with and without HCV infection. Conclusions: The prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI) among Egyptian hemodialysis patients is 7 % with no significant difference in the prevalence of OBI between hemodialysis patients with or without HCV infection and we suggest screening of all HD patients for OBI by testing anti-HBc and HBV DNA