This study aimed to evaluate clinical and biochemical changes in dairy cows during periparturient period. It was carried out on 38 multiparous Holstein/Fersian crossbreed dairy cows 3–11 years old. Using ultrasonography for measurement backfat thickness (BFT) for detection of the energy deficit. BFT on dairy cattle is used to monitor changes in subcutaneous fat thickness which represent changes in energy stores. On the basis of clinical examination and assessment of BHBA concentration in blood, cows were classified to four groups, control healthy cows (C = 16), subclinical ketosis (SCK = 10), cows with retained placenta (RP = 6), and clinical mastitis (CM= 6). BFT showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) after parturition in all diseased groups compared with healthy. The plasma level of NEFA and BHBA showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) at 2 weeks a.p (antepartum) and 2 weeks p.p (postpartum) in RP and SCK than other groups, respectively. The plasma level of glucose showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) at 2 weeks p.p in SCK group. The plasma level of insulin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) at 4 weeks a.p in RP group and in all groups after parturition. It could be concluded that production diseases induced clinical, biochemical,
and subcutaneous fat changes in dairy cows.