Abstract: The contamination of food and feedstuff with mycotoxins represents worldwide problem for both humans
and animals. Citrinin, one of the well known mycotoxins which cause renal disease and death among livestock,
poultry and perhaps humans as well since it is commonly found in food samples. Nephrotoxicity is produced in
swine by feeding grain contaminated with
Penicillium. citrinum. This study deals with the effect of dry lemon extract
on some biochemical parameters and histological changes on kidneys of male “Wister Lewis rats” after being found
to be moldy and having residues of citrinin mycotoxin. Fifty inbred weaned white male “Wistar Lewis rats” were
divided randomly into 5 groups (10 rats each). One control group was daily gavaged with distilled water and four
treated groups were daily gavaged with a soup lemon extract (2 ml/kg B.W) for 2 weeks (T1), double the dose (T2),
triple the dose (T3). Group T4 was gavaged (2 ml/kg B.W) of yellow lemon soup for 2 weeks. Sera from all groups
were collected to measure several biochemical indicators to assess kidney function, such as urea (BUN) and
creatinine (SCr). Serum BUN increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to control. In addition, serum
SCr increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to the control. On the other hand, total antioxidant
concentration was significantly lower in all treated groups as compared to the positive control. However, alpha
fetoprotein and carcinoembrionic antigen remained unchanged while pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 was decreased
significantly. Histopathological changes of rat kidney revealed tubular degenerative changes in (T3) which explain
biochemical changes. In conclusion, the use of dry lemon as a traditional food supplement in the Gulf region may
pose some risk of food poisoning due to the presence of citrinin.
[Nagwa M. Elsawi, Eman A. Al-Muhaini, Safaa Y. Qusti, Ahmed N. Abo-Khatwa, Magda M. Aly and Sabry H. H.
Nephrotoxicity Associated With the Use of Contaminated Dry Lemon Extract in Male Rats. J Am Sci
2012;8(10):480-489]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70