The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that house the ova and are also responsible for the production of sex hormones. They are paired organs located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes. The ovary is within the ovarian fossa, a space that is bound by the external iliac vessels, obliterated umbilical artery, and the ureter. (Kyung Won Chung,2015).
The ovary has 2 main sections: the outer cortex and inner medulla.
The cortex is where the follicles and oocytes are found at various stages of development and degeneration. The cortex is made of tightly packed connective tissue. The medulla is where the ovarian vasculature is found and is primarily loose stromal tissue. (Junqeira, et al 1998).
The Ovary formed of ovarian follicle which is the functional unit of the ovary. Follicles go through various stages of development each month, with the goal of their maturation to release the oocyte for the purpose of fertilization and reproduction. Type of follicle present at ovary primordial follicle, primary follicle ,secondary follicle, preantral and antral follicle. (J.K.Findle, et al. 2009).
Lead acetate is a chemical compound, that is a white crystalline substance having slight acetic acid odor with a sweetish taste, also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder,it is very toxic. it is soluble in water and glycerin. In low concentration, it is the principal active ingredient in progressive types of hair coloring dyes, it also used as a mordant in textile printing and dyeing(as a drier in paints and varnishes)and as sweetener and in preparing for cosmetics.( Seacole, 1990).
Lead is considered as one of the most hazards and cumulative environmental pollutants that affect all biological systems. (Patra ,et al.,2011).
Epidemiological and animal studies have illustrated that trace metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury have the potential to disrupt ovarian function. There are different responses of lead exposure including reduced fertility, spontaneous abortions, low birth weight, impairment in folliculogenesis, and even damage to the ovaries are also reported.
The use of plants as medicines dates to the down of history. Medicinal plants serve as therapeutic alternatives, safer choices, or in some cases, as the only effective treatment. People in separate cultures and places are known to have used the same plants for similar medical problems. A larger number of these plants and their isolated constituents have shown beneficial therapeutic effects .( Fong,2002).
Among the promising medicinal plants, N. sativa which also has different names throughout the world such as black seed, black caraway and black cumin. The black seed oil is reported to be beneficial due to its composition of many components such as aromatic oils trace elements and vitamins.
( Ozugurlu ,et al.,2005).