nparalleled public health danger. The disease was discovered 

in late December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, with an 

exceptionally high rate of spread. The virus that causes COVID-19

(SARS-CoV-2), has infected over 118 million people and caused 2.5 

million deaths in 216 countries, with the numbers continuing to 

rise. There are currently no officially licensed vaccines or antiviral 

drugs for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. Numerous 

therapeutic techniques have been tried since its discovery, such as 

the use of repurposing drugs including broad-spectrum antivirals, 

immunomodulators, plasma therapies, protease inhibitors, and 

nucleoside analogs, among others. However, these methods 

have not demonstrated substantial clinical benefits and are only 

used to relieve symptoms. Nanotechnology has evolved in recent 

decades, allowing us to build new nan