Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications
associated with this condition.
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and
maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
This register-based study was
conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia
was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded.
The total number of
babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common
maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%),
and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb’s palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate
of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally.
Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity
remain associated with this condition.