Background: Gram-negative bacteria; such as Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter,
proteus, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, are common human pathogens. Now, it is
difficult to treat these infections by most of the available antibiotics due to emergence of
multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli or Red Plague. Objectives: This work aims to
identify the rate of resistant gram negative bacteria in Sohag University hospital.
Methodology: The present study was done in Sohag University Hospital, a tertiary care
teaching hospital in Upper Egypt, more than 1000 bed capacity. Clinical specimens from
the ICU patients were collected aseptically and transferred immediately to the
microbiology laboratory for culture and sensitivity during the period from September
2016 to March 2017. Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated Gramnegative
bacilli were done by Vitek 2 automated system. Susceptibility was confirmed
using the disc diffusion (modified Kirby Bauer) method using antimicrobial susceptibility
testing discs supplied by (Oxoid, UK). The results were interpreted according to CLSI
guidelines. Results: Out of 226 isolates from the different clinical specimens; 118
(52.2%) isolates were Gram-negative bacilli. Escherichia coli was the most common
isolated among these Gram-negative bacilli (53 out of 118 isolates, 44.9%) and was the
most common cause of urinary tract infection in ICU, 84% (42 isolates out of 50 urine
samples). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the commonest cause of pneumonia in ICU (28 out
of 34 respiratory isolates, 82.3%). Pseudomonas spp.; (17 isolates, 14.4%;
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15 isolates and Pseudomonas stutzeri 2 isolates) also isolated.
Acinetobacter baumonni complex (6 isolates, 5.1%), Serratia liquefaciens (2 isolates,
1.7%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2 isolates, 1.7%) were the least common in
ICU. Nearly all the MDR Gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study were sensitive to
Tigecycline. Conclusion: This study highlights high rates of multidrug resistant gram
negative bacilli. Almost all the isolates were sensitive to Tigecycline. Therefore;
antibiotic stewardship, rigorous adherence to infection control guidelines, prevention of
antibiotic misuse and continuous surveillance system should be followed to decrease
emergence of new resistant strains.