Objectives: .'I:o detect the .. effect of cigarette smoking onssemen parameters, detectefhe
morphological abnormalities by scanning electron microscope (SBM) and to detect the ,pltra·
structural changes by using transmission electron microscope (TEM): · ,· .. . "
Setting; (?utpatjent clinic o;J; Dermatology and Venereology Department, So~ag University
Hospitals ir1d Electron Microscope Uriit at So hag Faculty of Science. " ·' ~,. . "x~ · f~./
Patients: Nine,ty healthy men; sixty of them were heavy smokers and thirty subjects w~re,
nonsmokers. "~' . . r~'f' . ····· · .. + . . .··.. . :. ' : •'
Interventions: Clinical examination, routine semen analysis and, detection of .. sperm
morphological abnormalities by SEM.and TEM. · · '" '· · · "'"
Results: Percentage of normal sperm motility and morphology were ··signij)Cantly higher
nonsmokersthan smokers. Th~ percehtage, of abnormalities detected by .SEM was significantly
higher than those •. detected b,y1Jight microscope. Moreover the types· of abnormaFties,.1.a
. (ac;~9somal
'cytopla~mic extrusion mass, Jong ~nd coiled tail) were shown to' be
significantly higher 'in i.~mokers than nonsmokers. By TEt•-1', .. all the ultra st~.uctural
abnormalifies' were shown to be .significantly pigher in smokers than nonsmokers. These
' usually were ;found., associated · with acrosomal abnormalities. .ran abnormalitie.s.
abn9rmalities. included; •.Head , abnormalities as nuclear abnormalities (binucleated .,,hea9,;•
nuclear inclusions, micleaf vacuolations) and acrosomal abnormalities. Nuclear' ~bnormali.!ies
. a'~pormalJtie? iii the ,axqn~nial~keleton,mitochondrial sheath and ;uter den~ecfibers. , '· ,, t · ·····
... C,:o~clll;sioo:' Gjgarette. spio~l1g 'QaS adverse effects on the sperm'morphology fo1d jhe u
structure of spermatozoa, '> ....