Master and MD for anesthesia ,pain management and ICU

nHistorical Perspective

nWhat is General Anesthesia?


nPrinciples of Surgical Anesthesia

nHemodynamic and Respiratory Effects


nNausea and Vomiting




nOriginal discoverer of general anesthetics

nCrawford Long:  1842, ether anesthesia

nChloroform introduced

nJames Simpson:  1847

nNitrous oxide

nHorace Wells

nMechanisms of Anesthesia

nWilliam Morton

nOctober 16, 1846

nGaseous ether

nPublic demonstration gained world-wide attention

nPublic demonstration consisted of an operating room, “ether dome,” where Gilbert Abbot underwent surgery in an unconscious state at the Massachusetts General Hospital

nEther no longer used in modern practice, yet considered to be the first “ideal” anesthetic

nEarly Ideas

nCellular Mechanisms


nMolecular Actions: GABAA Receptor

nMechanism of Propofol (Diprivan®)

nMetabolism and Toxicity

nAdverse Affects of Propofol

nRemaining Questions Concerning the GABAA Receptor

nLatest Discoveries and Current Events